How efficiently are physical and human capital allocated across countries? Observing
differences in the countries' ratios of physical and human capital to output is not conclusive
evidence of distortions since those differences may be driven by factor intensity differences
in the countries' production functions.
Why has the U.S. black/white earnings gap remained around 40 percent for nearly 40 years? This paper's answer consists of a model of skill accumulation and neighborhood formation featuring a trap: Initial racial inequality and racial preferences induce racial segregation and asymmetric skill accumulation choices that perpetuate racial inequality.
Mortgages are long-term nominal loans. Under incomplete asset markets, monetary policy is shown to affect housing investment and the economy through the cost of new mortgage borrowing and the value of payments on outstanding debt. These channels, distinct from traditional
transmission of monetary policy, are evaluated within a general equilibrium model.
The interest rate at which US firms borrow funds has two features: (i) it moves in a countercyclical fashion and (ii) it is an inverted leading indicator of real economic activity: low interest rates forecast booms in GDP, consumption, investment, and employment.
We study the endogenous choice to accept fiat objects as media of exchange and their implications
for nominal exchange rate determination. We consider a two-country environment with two
currencies which can be used to settle any transactions.
The supply and demand of credit are not always well aligned and matched, as is reflected
in the countercyclical excess reserve-to-deposit ratio and interest spread between the lending
rate and the deposit rate.
What determines the earnings of a worker relative to his peers in the same
occupation? What makes a worker fail in one occupation but succeed in another?
More broadly, what are the factors that determine the productivity of a worker-occupation
match? In this paper, we propose an empirical measure of skill mismatch
for a worker-occupation match, which sheds light on these questions.
Established by a three person Reserve Bank Organization Committee (RBOC) in 1914, the structure of the Federal Reserve System has remained essentially unchanged ever since, despite criticism at the time and over ensuing decades.
Low sex ratios are often equated with unfavorable marriage prospects for women, but in France after World War I, the marriage probability of single females rose 50%, despite a massive drop in the male/female ratio.
The rise of China is no doubt one of the most important events in world economic history since
the Industrial Revolution. Mainstream economics, especially the institutional theory of
development based on a dichotomy of extractive vs. inclusive political institutions, is highly
inadequate in explaining China’s rise.
In U.S. data 1981–2012, unsecured firm credit moves procyclically and tends to lead GDP,
while secured firm credit is acyclical; similarly, shocks to unsecured firm credit explain a
far larger fraction of output fluctuations than shocks to secured credit.
Rehypothecation refers to the practice of spending a borrowed security
that is ostensibly assigned as collateral in a lending arrangement.
We develop a dynamic general equilibrium monetary model
where an “asset shortage” and incomplete markets motivates the formation
of credit relationships and the rehypothecation of assets.
We use cross-country data and instrumental variables widely used in the
literature to show that (i) institutions (such as property rights and the rule of law) do
not explain industrialization and (ii) agrarian countries and industrial countries have
entirely different determinants for income levels.
This study proposes and quantitatively assesses a terms-of-trade penalty for defaulting: defaulters must exchange more of their own goods for imports, which causes an adjustment to the equilibrium exchange rate.
Consider the following facts. In 1950, the richest countries attained an average of 8 years
of schooling whereas the poorest countries 1.3 years, a large 6-fold difference. By 2005, the
difference in schooling declined to 2-fold because schooling increased faster in poor than in
In this paper we compare the welfare effects of unemployment insurance (UI) with an universal
basic income (UBI) system in an economy with idiosyncratic shocks to employment. Both policies
provide a safety net in the face of idiosyncratic shocks.
This paper studies the effects of interregional spillovers from the government spending component of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (the Recovery Act). Using
cross-county Census Journey to Work commuting data, we cluster U.S. counties into local labor markets, each of which we further partition into two subregions.