Monetary Aggregates and Their Components
Inflation Expectations measures include the quarterly Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia Survey of Professional Forecasters, the monthly University of Michigan Survey Research Center’s Surveys of Consumers, and the annual Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) range as reported to the Congress in the February testimony that accompanies the Monetary Policy Report to the Congress. Beginning February 2000, the FOMC began using the personal consumption expenditures (PCE) price index to report its inflation range; the FOMC then switched to the PCE chain-type price index excluding food and energy prices (“core”) beginning July 2004. Accordingly, neither are shown on this graph. CPI Inflation is the percentage change from a year ago in the consumer price index for all urban consumers.
From 1991 to the present the source of the long-term PCE inflation expectations data is the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia’s Survey of Professional Forecasters. Prior to 1991, the data were obtained from the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. Realized (actual) inflation is the annualized rate of change for the 40-quarter period that corresponds to the forecast horizon (the expectations measure). For example, in 1965:Q1, annualized PCE inflation over the next 40 quarters was expected to average 1.7 percent. In actuality, the average annualized rate of change measured 4.8 percent from 1965:Q1 to 1975:Q1. Thus, the vertical distance between the two lines in the chart at any point is the forecast error.
Real Interest Rates
Percent, Real rate = Nominal rate less year-over-year CPI inflation